时间：2022-09-11 15:55:07 | 浏览：5290
“The Ming and Qing imperial tombs are natural sites modified by human influence, carefully chosen according to the principles of geomancy (Fengshui) to house numerous buildings of traditional architectural design and decoration. They illustrate the continuity over five centuries of a world view and concept of power specific to feudal China.” This is the description made by the World Heritage Committee when the Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000.
Ming and Qing dynasties were the heyday of imperial mausoleum construction in ancient China. The first emperor of Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, reformed the mausoleum traditions by changing the grave mound into circular shape and expanding the construction of overground funerary architecture. The Xiaoling Tomb, where Zhu Yuanzhang was buried after his death, became the originator of the imperial tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Qing dynasty inherited the imperial mausoleum traditions of Ming dynasty, and improved the sacrifice system to be more reasonable.
Located at the northwest of Zunhua, Tangshan, Hebei Province, the Eastern Qing Tombs are screened by the Jinxing Mountain, fronted by the Yingbi Mountain and seated against the Changrui Mountain, with two rivers on east and west sides winding around. Covering an area of 78 square kilometers, the Eastern Qing Tombs consist of 15 mausoleums (5 for emperors, 4 for empresses, 5 for concubines and 1 for princess) which were built successively since 1661 at the early stage of Qing dynasty, and 161 people altogether were buried here. With Xiaoling Tomb as the axis, the 15 mausoleums are arranged fan-like on the south side of Changrui Mountain according to seniority and precedence in rank. In the style of “courts in front and dwellings in the back”, all mausoleums are made up of a set of architectures, including stele pavilion, palace walls, Long’en Hall, eastern and western side halls, square city, memorial tower, treasure peak, etc., forming a perfect spatial combination of all buildings.
Known as the first mausoleum in the Changrui Mountain, Xiaoling Tomb is the mausoleum for Shunzhi Emperor, the first emperor of Qing dynasty. It was built at the early stage of Qing dynasty’s entering the central plain, when the country was under the strike of war and in poverty. The 18 pairs of stone sculptures flanking the 870-meter Sacred Way appear simple but mighty, reflecting the powerful spirit of conquering the world on horseback at the early stage of Qing dynasty.
Jingling Tomb and Yuling Tomb are mausoleums for Kangxi Emperor and Qianlong Emperor, who built the “Kang-Qian Flourishing Age”. As they made more achievements during their reigns, their mausoleums are more gorgeous and magnificent in architectures, especially for the Undergound Palace of Yuling Tomb that is carved with Buddhism patterns, demonstrating the prevalence of Buddhism as royal religion in heyday of peace.
Dingling Tomb and Eastern Dingling Tomb witness the historical transformation of Qing dynasty from flourish to decline: the owner of Dingling Tomb, Xianfeng Emperor, faced domestic strife and foreign aggression during his reign. While one of the owners of Ding Dongling Tomb, Empress Dowager Cixi, was much more well-known for “attending to state affairs behind a curtain” twice. The luxurious decoration of three gold-glazed halls in Ding Dongling Tomb can be rarely seen in the world and the stone carving of “phoenix on top of dragon” design on the flight of steps in front of the hall demonstrates her desire and ambition for power.
The construction of Eastern Qing Tombs went through two and a half centuries, almost parallel to the history of Qing dynasty, writing a history of rise and fall with bricks, wood, tiles and stones. The Eastern Qing Tombs are representative works during the heyday of mausoleum construction in Chinese history by reason of their improving integration into the natural environment and topography.